KINDLE Che cos'è reale? La scomparsa di Majorana
On though probable actual deployment we will assume from six months earlier interval March Dec 1938 to much before Dec 1942 Variables of M s nowledge ability to satisfy NF are unknown here so M did not unless he seriously thought no one else could satisfy NF unlikely and assumption his reason for leaving was for this reason provide an immediate and concrete evidence of reality 65 given his mentioning that the powers of interpretation a special skill is an important support of the art of government ibid The decision however you judge principally of M however does not relate or be a solution to the theoretical arguments or uestion to What is Real posed by M MAgamben reason for two stars Apologies in the previous for the confused behind the lines again alchemical language used this is reproduced in M s thesis one would have to read to understand though I disagree with conclusions as delineated briefly above it is observable that M Geometry Part 1: Quickstudy Laminated Reference Guide (Quick Study Academic) knew and ingrained sociologicalfar reaching effects of any initial state of conditions than usual narrow confines of those in the mean established scientific orthodoxy I approached this small book with some trepidation since contemporary continental philosopherstheorists have developed a bit of a side industry in misaddressing uantum physics A Plotnitsky s attempt to favorably link N Bohr s complementarity pseudo system to Derridean deconstruction F Laruelle s grafting of superposition for his own purposes etcThe setup of Agamben s analysis the rather coy understated means by which Agamben vaguely suggests a deeper or somehow intentional connection between the mysterious 1938 disappearance of the physicist Ettore Majorana and interpretative debates over a deterministic versus inherently probabilistic nature of fundamental physics at first reading may seem to be a similarly cheap or at least gimmicky correspondence But the main sections of Agamben s actual analysis distinct from his ultimately just suggestive opening and closing references to Majorana s disappearance are incisively focused on the concept of probability and how in many ways confusion over the role of probability in contemporary philosophy of science still remains to be sorted out coherently in relation to ontologyThe crux of Agamben s argument seems to come down toIt is evident that as was suggested by Simone Weil the paradoxes in uestion in uantum mechanics derive from the unconditional assumption of probabilistic conceptions which are not matched by an adeuate reflection on the very nature of the notion of probability For both the supporters of the orthodox theory and their critics the state of the system before and after observation is not a real but a probabilistic state however they seem to produce a representation of this state and argue as if probability were a very specialind of reality which one can think in a paradoxical way for example as if a particle were at the same time in both state A and state B But is it correct to represent the probable as if it were something that exists In other words what is at stake is a problem concerning the ontology of the probable or the possible since probability is nothing other than a possibility ualified in a certain way pp 27 28 And Agamben interestingly relating these debates to his familiar references to potentiality in Aristotle Chance is a non cause or an accidental cause which we refer to when events that seem to have been produced because of a given final cause are instead produced accidentally and unexpectedly It goes without saying that Aristotle rules out that there can be a science of chance and what is accidental If we try to define probability in Aristotle s terms we may say that it is a potency emancipated from its hierarchical subjection to the act Insofar as it secured
AN EXISTENCE THAT IS INDEPENDENT OFexistence that is independent of actual realization such a possibility tends to replace and thus to become the object of a science of the
Accidental Unthinkable For Aristotle That Considers Possibilityunthinkable for Aristotle that considers possibility such not as a means of Herbier et autres collections knowing the real but as a way of intervening in it in order to govern it The analogy with Aristotelian dynamis is all the stronger here since the latter was indeed the specific dimension of human techniues andnowledge In De Anima Aristotle thus comes to define the intellect as a being whose nature is potential being and compares it to a writing tablet on which nothing has yet been actually written What happened in modern statistics and uantum physics is that the writing tablet pure possibility replaced reality and Historical Archaeology: Why the Past Matters knowledge nownows only nowledge itself pp 39 40Agamben by way of his analysis of the nature of probability itself at least does not as many contemporary uantum inspired writers are prone to do just regurgitate Bohr s early uasi philosophical and ultimately incoherent formulation of the meaning of uantum physics as if it s a fait accompli or the only possible interpretation of the experimental results Agamben even briefly mentions Louis de Broglie s pilot wave model as an alternative deterministic account p 23 after summarizing Simone Weil s objections to using epistemological uncertainty ignorance of initial conditions as a basis for throwing out determinism altogether an underlying confusion which results in what have become the most common incoherent ontologies of uantum physics to the extent that even today many physicists apparently seriously consider it somehow reasonable that an entire new universe is somehow splintered off due to each uantum measurement rather than simply accept that some version of nonlocalityentanglement is just a fundamental aspect of nature at the uantum scale or belowbeyond it cf This book also includes Majorana s own essay on statistical laws from the 1930s first published in 1942 four years after he disappeared There s some irony in the fact that Majorana began his essay an essay stressing the fundamental shift toward probabilistic frameworks using astronomy and planetary motion as the contrast to the ontologically probabilistic interpretations of uantum physics Recently studies have actually demonstrated geometric parallels between pilot wave like models of both uantum systems and planetary systems that is showing that density distributions of both planets and electrons for example can be explained by modeling peaks and valleys of interference patterns among waves cf which if true implies exactly the reverse of Majorana s assumption that there is an insurmountable probabilistic break within physics between micro and macro levels For any physicists out there doubting this that realist models of M still exist in relation to actual experiments see for example nonlocal realist theories of M have not been disproved rumors to the contrary notwithstanding and in this sense Agamben s reliance upon Weil s earlier criticisms of the causal incoherence of the initial interpretations of the uantum results may have current scientific not just philosophical relevance than even Agamben himself may fully realize Nonlocalityentanglement is an unavoidable result of uantum physics but any claim that inherent nonlocality somehow throws out reality altogether is unfounded to Agamben s credit he at least ends this book with a uestion What is real rather than with a lazy ode to complementarity or some other undeveloped philosophical interpretation of the uantum results. Nd in dialogue with Simone Weil's considerations on the topic Giorgio Agamben suggests that by disappearing into thin air Majorana turned his very person into an exemplary cipher of the status of the real in our probabilistic universe In so doing the physicist posed a uestion to science that is still awaiting an answer What is Rea.
Giorgio Agamben ↠ 1 REVIEW
Ffianca le leggi generali della fisica classica senza mai sostituirle la fisica degli atomi dei uanti degli stati discontinui dell energia dell influenza dell osservatore sul sistema osservato e dell impossibilit della conoscenza ovvero della misura dello stato di un sistema della capacit degli esperimenti di governare la materia La fisica uantistica opera una rivoluzione rispetto alle leggi deterministiche della fisica classica fondata sul concetto di probabilit prima dell osservazione sperimentale un sistema si trova contemporaneamente in tutte le posizioni ed solo al momento dell osservazione e della misura che ne occupa una secondo una distribuzione di probabilit Poich per sua natura la probabilit non si riferisce mai a un singolo evento reale ecco che nasce un mondo parallelo a uello reale uello delle probabilit che pu influenzare le scelte rispetto alla realt ovvero permette di intervenire sulla realt governandola Ecco uindi che nella fisica uantistica la realt si eclissa nella probabilit Su uesti presupposti si compiuto lo sviluppo scientifico dell ultimo secolo le cui scoperte e applicazioni stanno negli ultimi decenni imprimendo un accelerazione al mutamento delle tecniche e delle tecnologie e di conseguenza delle societ accelerazione che per il momento ci impedisce di fissare la realt in uno stato determinato Anzi la realt sembra sempre pi assumere essa stessa la forma di una distribuzione probabilistica che ancora non siamo in grado di calcolare Ed ui che Agamben chiude il cerchio la scomparsa di Majorana sarebbe avvenuta per la volont stessa di Majorana di confutare la teoria oggetto dei suoi studi come metodo di dimostrazione della sua validit e universalit La scomparsa risulta essere un evento assolutamente reale e al tempo stesso assolutamente improbabile non potendo essere misurata per effetto dell assenza dell oggetto da misurare in uesto caso il corpo dello scienziato Un modo geniale ed inuieto per riproporre la domanda cui la scienza non ha ancora saputo dare risposta che cos realeLa statistica non una scienza volta alla conoscenza sperimentale del reale piuttosto la scienza che permette di prendere decisioni in condizioni di incertezza Though I new this was coming the following sentence on p42 shocked me as soon as we assume that the real state of a system is in itself unknowable statistical models become essential and cannot but replace realityAnd I realised I was in a very contemporary world not the 1930s when Majorana disappeared into the exemplary cipher of the status of the real in the probabilist universe of contemporary physicsThe sensation of instability that nothing is real is a common one Reading the thoughts of Majorana a physicist only makes reconciling oneself that this is all there is even harder Of course we don t need physicists to assist us in uestioning what is real we have politicians like Donald Scott Morrison from Oz and Boris But a physicist makes it real Five stars just for the enduring sensation of instabilityI have BlackOxford a GR reviewer of note to thank for introducing me to this little booklet Size means nothing I proto outcome of successive indifferent blind chance dice rolls etc contend formally with the thesis encapsulation that uantum mechanics relies on the convention that reality must be eclipsed by probability then disappearance is the only way in which the real can peremptorily be affirmed as such and avoid the grasp of calculation 42 43 since a M as a subset of ineluctable character to perception to world merely rendersdissolves essential reality so there is no allegorical hiding of a theoretical thing in itself absolute excepting unavoidable descriptors logical rules though baseless for anything other than as sticky relative referents by agreement b the
Incomplete Infinite Arbitrariness Impassiveinfinite arbitrariness impassive seuence in abstraction gruesome possessiveness of minimal representation has inverseabnormal results c assumein itself unknowable unknowable state of the of minimal representation has inverseabnormal results c assumein itself unknowable unknowable state of the before being perturbed 42 false euivalency every case has been ungraspable ordained augury of theory this happened before M whether Aristotle substancePlato formsWeil Godclassical mechanics referenced recursive almost reason enough not to use M for philosophy when of definitives any result can be theoretically posited d appears as wish fulfillments for preserving enigmatic cloud of unknowing whether M post classical physics is intelligible or not is a distinct aporia e difference between possibility and probability Majorana s disappearance as an existing progenitor capable of causes is perhaps an escape for probability of individual nomos calculation we lack some valent information the texture of decision yet the manner of throwing the dice remains as an actualized possibility by rules of large numbers crudely statistically predicted contained we now velocitymotion if not position in the allusive sense of M s objection though f given transposed operators depend upon introduced order skeletal force ful suturing by human interference symbolically declaration universal form may render ambiguous every experimentally detectable trace 43 to himself only to us we cannot comment or we say e yet this is not an escape Regarding the Value of Statistical Laws in Physics and Social Sciences transdisciplinary paper one can confidently state this for example given the uote both uantities probable lifetime transformation period are independent of the atom age 63 M sany attempt to be among the negligible amount of exceptions wholly or in part 56 one of few expressions italicized not formally defined by the macroscopic state A seems a pointlessunattainablesimply a delaying of the time where a transformation period occurs the disintegration of a given atom because embedded in a context of social sciences human affairs with metaphysical notation of feeling by the language used composition of simplistic alchemical like sentences somewhat vague with importantly rare use of commas which in the topical sense of his writing could signify a deviation or deflection from the initial state of a sentence or thermodynamic system or metaphorical anthropomorphised subject as M is so inevitable may we say determined even if M states to me an incorrectlogically flawed that single radioactive atoms do not undergo any reciprocal influence concerning the instant of transformation 63 especially from the mentioned random fluctuationsthe probabilistic character of the individual law of transformations ibid So if M removes himself from the dynamic system others would venture ontodemonstrate nuclear fission even maybe counterfactually be drawn to reasons for his disappearance speeding up the process did this actually historically happen *upon discovery by Otto HahnFritz Strassmann six months after both worked with MFermi s earlier research he himself relinuished *discovery by Otto HahnFritz Strassmann six months after both worked with MFermi s earlier research he himself relinuished to change the course of Newton s first law Ethical preliminaries or common scientific standards would statistically not be listened to in bellicose late 1930 s his locationpossession as professor in fascist Italy M likely did not want to participate with AxisAllied powers though he could have pre emptively defected before or with Fermi in the same month of OF s Dec 1938 fission findings HiroshimaNagasaki may not have happened nuclear weapons may have been demonstrated earlier to deter further German annexati. Pearing because he had precociously realized that nuclear fission would inevitably lead to the atomic bomb This book advances a different hypothesis Through a careful analysis of Majorana's article The Value of Statistical Laws in Physics and Social Sciences which shows how in uantum physics reality is dissolved into probability Would you like a beautifully made and elegantly tailored story about a brilliant physicist whose mysterious disappearance coincides with international controversy about uantum mechanics and the nature of science itself Yes Would you like it to embody some of the largest uestions about how we view governmental power and how we understand complex subjects through statistics Yes Would you like an Italian philosopher to wrap all of the above up for you in oh I don t now 60 pages or soNo wasted words No unfounded thoughts No dependence on canon Agamben you brilliant man This is a lesson in probability superimposition and governance it is about science and dice As the physicians such as Majorana have realized Any experiment performed on an atomic system exerts a finite perterbation on it that cannot be eliminated or reduced for reasons of principle The result of any measurement seems therefore to be concerned with the state the system is led to during the experiment rather than with the unknowable state of the system before being perturbedThis from an essay where the physicist describes the parallel between the natural and social sciences Of course many social scientists will agree too and have Releasing Heaven on Earth: Gods Principles for Restoring the Land known this for a long time the presence of an experimenter changs the outcome of an experiment These bizarrely called social facts are assertions of power in a domain ruled by probability But this is about not just the experiment but also how the vision of experimentation to understand the world has changed we are not trying to understand the world any longer we scientists seek to understand the probability of something abstracted from a controlled situation in which their intervention has changed reality I ll let Agamben say it Majorana clearly saw the implications of a mechanics that renounced every non probabilistic conception of the real Science no longer tied tonown reality but like the statistics of social sciences only intervenes in it in order to govern it For Agamben and here he is also following Simone Weil this entails that science has left behind its objective for so many years that was to understand the reality of the world Now science moves through statistical reason and it assumes a probabilistic model of the world And as soon as we assume that the real state of a system is in itself unknowable statistical models become essential and cannot but replace reality Governance follows the world departs from sight the pursuits of human activity become speculative and ungrounded and science so long the bastion of humanistic reason can no longer answer the simple uestion what is real Life Imitating Science uantum physics forced the recognition of something that had always been the case but had been ignored by both scientists and philosophers of science Metrics are never a property of the event or thing being measured Or to put the matter generally mathematics is not analogous to what is the case in the worldThis unexpected and disconcerting conclusion is obvious in uantum physics because the probabilistic character of uantum events can only be analysed within an imaginary world of chance The mathematics of chance cannot be analogous to reality because the one who calculates probability relies on risk without actually taking a risk that is to say he leaves reality and at the same time transforms chance l hasard into a principle allowing him to decide on reality This means that probability is never punctually realized as such nor does it concern a single real event but it allows us to intervene in reality as considered from a special perspective in order to govern it This idea of governing reality by measuring it that is imposing an order on it that is not inherent was an insight formulated by the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana in the 1930 s He recognised it as a fundamental implication of Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle and of the research results of Planck and Fermi among others If his insight was correct what had been considered scientific in the past was no longer possible to conceive as such All measurement not just measurement of the very small was an intervention in reality in order to command a response That response typically showed up as a position on a metric provided by the scientist The event or thing measured had no intrinsic properties but it became a property of the metric through the process of measurementReality does have a defence against such intrusive interference it disappears it refuses to respond That is the event or thing may leave its mark on the metric employed but its existential reality escapes further scientific scrutiny It is unclear whether reality is destroyed through measurement or simply evades discovery This is a central poetic mystery of uantum physics But it is also the reason psych tests can t identify incipient mass illers democratic elections are unpredictable and no one has ever seen dark matter Reality is beyond the reach of language and therefore measurementIt is also a central mystery of the fate Of Ettore Majorana Who After Ettore Majorana who after various cryptic messages to friends and family members in 1938 disappeared without a trace Whether he committed suicide or fled to an isolated monastic existence is an issue that can only be resolved probabilistically based on the available evidence But it is clear that Majorana succeeded in commanding his own immunity from further observation and therefore measurement Agamben s view is that Majorana for his own hidden reasons was demonstrating the reality of a uantum world by acting it out in his own life if uantum mechanics relies on the convention that reality must be eclipsed by probability then disappearance is the only way in which the real can peremptorily be
AFFIRMED AS SUCH AND AVOID THEas such and avoid the of calculation Majorana turned his very person into the exemplary cipher of the status of the real in the probabilistic universe of contemporary physics and produced in this way an event that is at the same time absolutely real and absolutely improbable In short whatever reality is it is not to be found through science A rather profound point in such a brief philosophical anecdote and an even profound way to pursue one s life in science Che cos reale domanda che sempre pi acuisisce senso in un mondo che nel lavoro nelle relazioni nei bisogni si dematerializza costringendoci a nuove modalit di percezione uindi a diverse forme di necessit e desiderio codifica e comprensione che creino e stabilizzino la realt Ettore Majorana geniale ed inuieto fisico che avrebbe potuto competere con Fermi scompare la sera del 25 marzo del 1938 dopo essersi imbarcato a Napoli su un piroscafo diretto a Palermo Nessuno lo rivedr n ne avr notizie le ultime risalgono a due lettere contraddittorie dello stesso Majorana datate il giorno della sua scomparsa e uello successivo nella prima si accomiata lasciando presagire una volont di suicidio nella *SECONDA ANNUNCIA IL SUO RITORNO E *annuncia il suo ritorno e rinuncia all insegnamento universitario uesta indeterminatezza lo spunto da cui Agamben muove le sue riflessioni nello stesso campo di studi di Majorana la fisica che in uel particolare momento storico la fisica uantisticaDa Planck a Bohr da Heisenberg a Einstein da Schrodinger a Fermi e Oppenheimer a partire dai primi decenni del Novecento i maggiori fisici mondiali conuistano e si lasciano conuistare da una nuova teoria che Eighty years ago Ettore Majorana a brilliant student of Enrico Fermi disappeared under mysterious circumstances while going by ship from Palermo to Naples How is it possible that the most talented physicist of his generation vanished without leaving a trace It has long been speculated that Majorana decided to abandon physics disap.