EBOOK / PDF Dispossession
Dispossession is a very gripping and valuable book a combination of detailed history and ersonal stories making lain how African American farmers were systematically deprived of their land and livelihood by the white controlled agri government during the third uarter of the twentieth century Yes the same civil rights era when some substantial success was made against racial discrimination At that same time agriculture was experiencing big changes leading to increased yields Mechanization herbicides and esticides reduced the number of farmworkers needed Between 1940 and 1974 the number of African American farmers fell by an astounding 93 The Wedding Redux percent compared with a much smaller number of white farmers leaving the land The magnitude of this decline wasersonal tragedy to those farmers and it was not coincidental white Rolling Thunder people in the USDA manipulated the distribution of information loans grants and ofositions of Ye Castle Stinketh: Could You Survive Living in a Castle? power to favor white farmers This shamefulart of American history only slowly became apparent to me a white immigrant farmer as I noticed USDA reparation efforts within hrases like historically under served uite the under statementThe USDA romoted capital intensive agriculture and subsidized already wealthy farmers headed in this direction At the same time the USDA ut barriers in the way of women and minority farmers seeking a fair share of resources
Including The Important Acreage the important acreage approval to grow certain acreages of wheat cotton corn tobacco eanuts and rice These roduction controls had been introduced in the mid 1950s to revent surplus roduction Every couple of years the rules changed and not all farmers were given the needed information to apply for that year s ermits and The Art of Mary Beth Edelson price support mechanismsThe USDA had been run by white men since it was formed in 1862 and with the exception of the Negro Extension Service African Americans were excluded from any decision makingositions Many individuals and organizations worked to get USDA to remove the discrimination and to help African Americans get a FAIR DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESOURCES PETE distribution of the resources Pete s book focuses on the South in the years before the 1999 Pigford v Glickman class action suit which won compensation for discrimination occurring after 1981 Previously there was no real check on USDA discrimination The class action suit opened the way for similar suits by women Native Americans and Latinx farmersThe first couple of chapters of the book give the overview and make for information acked reading After setting the stage Pete Daniel shares individual stories of farmers civil rights volunteers and black extension agents The first chapter is called Intended Conseuences Although the 1964 Civil Rights Act banned discrimination the US Commission on Civil Rights created to monitor the application of the Act reported in March 1965 of a broad range of discriminatory ractices in every office of the USDA It took 30 years before Timothy Pigford brought the suit that found the USDA guilty of widespread discrimination The broken Motivational Perspectives on Chronic Pain promise of Forty acres and a mule for every soldier in the Civil War was followed by decades of subverted laws and farmingrograms that left black farmers unjustly treated And Pigford did not fix everything Congress did not make funds available until 2010 by which time many of the mistreated farmers had died or lost their farms And all the farmers discriminated against before 1981 received no recompenseThe USDA was founded during the Civil War to encourage better farming methods throughout the country In 1862 Congress funded land grant universities in each state Since Southern white schools would not admit Black students Congress funded the African American land grant colleges in 1890 with fewer resources than went to the white colleges The 1887 Hatch Act established agricultural research stations and Congress established the segregated and uneual Federal Extension Service in 1914 operating out of the land grant universities roviding
some farmers with advice and information The organization of the Extension Service was convoluted territorial and discriminatory farmers with advice and information The organization of the Extension Service was convoluted territorial and discriminatory extension agents wielded enormous ower The confused structure lead to claims that some agents were employed by the county and some were federal employees All in fact were None Like Him: 10 Ways God Is Different from Us (and Why That's a Good Thing) part of the federal civil service retirement system and held civil service appointments A white agent with 6 years work experience with the extension service wasaid 375 a month while a black agent with 14 years experience was Puta paid only 212 The Black agent received considerably less information from the office and was kept out of the decision making loop In somelaces the furniture for the Black agent s office was much 伝説の勇者の伝説 5 出来心の後始末 poorer uality than that in the white agent s office Black agents received no vehicles and little demonstration materials and had to do their own typing Black agents were usually isolated from decision making and rare. Between 1940 and 1974 the number of African American farmers fell from 681790 to just 45594 a drop of 93ercent In his hard hitting book historian Pete Daniel analyzes this decline and chronicles black farmers' fierce struggles to remain on the land in the face of discrimination by bureaucrats in the US Department of Agriculture He exposes. Ly interacted with their white counterparts Because the USDA functioned in isolation the white leadership in USDA had not been challenged about their discriminatory racticesLoans often went to wealthier farmers rather than the oor farmers for whom the rogram was intended Black Farmers Assumed Many Of The Programs Were For Whites Only assumed many of the Cocksure programs were for whites only did not apply Or they decided that the costs of upsetting the applecart were higher than the costs of managing without those resources Asressure mounted on the agricultural organizations to appoint or elect African Americans whites turned to intimidation tokenism and duplicity such as getting Beyond the Cliffs of Kerry (Bold Women of the 18th Century, permission to include the name of an African American on a committee but then not telling theerson which committee or when they met His name was sought to satisfy reuirements but his Porto Bello Gold participation was not wantedDuring early 1964 the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee wasreparing for the Freedom Summer and the US Commission on Civil Rights turned its attention to the USDA This 6 erson commission made investigations and reports but had no enforcement ower The National Sharecroppers Fund had filed nine discrimination cases with the Secretary of Agriculture Orville Freeman but Freeman had reported that all Mississippi USDA agencies had denied discrimination as if that was a fact The commission interviewers uestioned USDA agents
Throughout The South And the South and unchallenged malpractice in The Three Lives of Sonata James powerful southern USDA county offices Black farmers had not received information about new trends orrograms or loans Black farmers often received no notices of conservation service or other committee elections or even of their right to voteTowards the end of the Freedom Summer of 1964 civil rights activists moved into helping African Americans benefit from federal Mein Erster Mörder programs They also hoped to get Black farmers onto committees where they could have influence by force of numbers Many believed the jobs were for whites only Sharecroppers and tenant farmers were sueezed out when committee work involved calculations they had never been taught to do or understanding complex farmrograms This left the field open for white agents to ignore deceitful acreage measurements by white farmers Surpluses were not destroyed even in cases where they were hundreds of acres in excess Some ballot boxes were stuffed some elections were declared invalid In order to reserve central control and shore up apparent articipation committee members sometimes convinced farmers of the value of Kaki vojaki: roman v rimah in slikah programs that did not help themSNCC workers saw how sharecroppers did not have access to their accounts and Willie Mae Robinson in Mississippi for exampleicked 20 bales of cotton in 1962 that should have brought her 1870 But she was only given 3In 1963 when Martin Luther King Jr gave his I Have a Dream speech at the March on Washington civil rights leaders there urged John Lewis the SNCC chair to tone down his criticism of the Kennedy administration for unlawful arrests and failure to romote the civil rights bill SNCC was seen as outside the main campaign for civil rights When farmers in Mississippi rovided housing for the SNCC workers they suffered economic reprisals When they registered to vote they risked losing their homes and their jobs Sharecroppers had no bargaining chips One key for rogress was to get Black farmers to stand for seats on the Conservation Service committeesIn 1965 The Conservation Service ASCS took steps to make sure all farmers had the chance to vote and that the elections would be fair But there was widespread fraud and intimidation which the Conservation Service chose to ignore Physical intimidation and violence firing from jobs and etty insults such as using only first names for Black eople were common All black advisory committees were set up to assist white ASCS committees although this was not the eual articipation mandated for federal Bear Boy programs Unsurprisingly white committees continued to run the show SNCC workers offered workshops and stressed how importantarticipation in ASCS elections was They gave support by Black Women in White America putting opaue election rules intolain English and using stick figure diagrams to explain elections so farmers could understand what options they had The next year Horace Godfrey the head of ASCS ordered counties to hire non whites for temporary summer jobs at the same Worlds Beyond The Poles percentage of theopulation as whites Godfrey s hiring initiative became the best civil rights action taken by any USDA administrator in the 1960s This did not smoothly lead to the hiring of Black farmers for ermanent jobs although the ASCS set up a training rogram for clerical ositions which helped a few individuals each year and cracked the segregation within ASCS1965 included an escalation of violence with the assassination of Malcolm X the olice brutality towards the marchers in Selma President Johnson s increase of troops in the Vietnam War and the in. The shameful fact that at the very moment civil rights laws Monster der Woche promised to end discrimination hundreds of thousands of black farmers lost their hold on the land as they were denied loans information and access to therograms essential to survival in a capital intensive farm structureMore than a matter of neglect of these farmers and their righ. Troduction of the draft Press attention turned towards the war and away from civil rights In July 1965 Nyle Brady the soil scientist as the USDA s director of science and education claimed that the Extension Service had contacted 312000 non white southern farmers Census numbers showed that there were less than 200000 nonwhite farmers in the SouthMany elections were rigged but Washington refused to take corrective action or even admit anything was wrong In July 1966 in Lowndes County Alabama there was such blatant fraud that Stokely Carmichael reflected If the government can spend billions of dollars to kill eople in Vietnam to assure free elections then they had better spend some of those dollars to assure free elections in the Lowndes County ASCS Stokely Carmichael led SNCC away from civil rights organizations including their white "Allies And Focused On Color Rather Than "and focused on color rather than He introduced the Black Power slogan which meant different things to different eople erhaps as Defund the Police does in our times His belligerent words alienated John Lewis Charles Sherrod and Julian Bond who all resigned from SNCC in 1966The last of the white allies left in the spring of 1967 a step that was ainful to many of them The representation of Black farmers on ASCS suffered as a result of this Ones and Zeroes pivot of attention in the SNCC During 1968 support from civil rights workers for southern Black farmers dwindled asolitical activists focused on anti war efforts Increasingly the focus of discrimination included women who were extremely rare within USDA In a summary of minorities on county committees there were no women at all Beginning to employ Black eople and white women changed the office culture Training rograms began for minorities and women to ualify them for jobs in ASCSIn 1981 the USDA had disbanded its Office of Civil Rights and stopped responding to farmers who had filed complaints The US
Commission on Civil Rights reported in 1982 on continued injustice in every rogram which resembled too much the on Civil Rights reported in 1982 on continued injustice in every rogram which resembled too much the exposed in its 1965 report By 1982 only 33000 Black farmers remained in the South Isidoro Rodriguez headed the Office of Minority Affairs from 1981 and in a bid to support the Republicans dropped civil rights guidelines that were contrary to the Reagan administration Investigations dropped from 90 a year to zero He cut staff by ten and returned 475000 in unspent funds He was fired in 1983The 1984 House Judiciary Subcommittee hearing included as a witness Timothy Pigford who went on to file a class action suit after eight years of struggling to afford to farm in the teeth of very bad advice and no financial assistance from the USDA The 1999 Pigford v Glickman class action suit won compensation for discrimination occurring after 1981 claims of discrimination The two year statute of limitations was extended to cover the longer eriod Theoretically before that date the office of Civil Rights had dealt with complaints although as we have seen this was a big whitewashAs a result of Pigford farmers lacking incomplete documentation of their claim could get a cash ayment of 50000 and forgiveness of debts owed to the USDA Farmers with documentation had no cap on what they could recover Judge Friedman commented that the billions of dollars due to farmers for discrimination would show that the USDA was not above the law and remind them of the conseuences of discriminationThe ayment of compensation resulting from Pigford claims was delayed in some cases for a decade until February 2010 when the Obama administration announced a 125 Billion Settlement With African billion settlement with African farmersMemory fades and the history of the civil rights movement is mythologized as a string of heroes achievements and successes Like the earlier faked compliance reports the success story has edited out conflicts obstruction of justice and the many individual and small group efforts to bring justice The USDA spoke of eual opportunity even as it obscured ineuities in lending and rovision of information and assistance and discriminated in choosing employees and as it continued bad olicies that drove African American farmers off the land Resources went to relatively wealthy white farmersTo compound the roblems of Black farmers many died without making a will and all the heirs inherited the farm Any heir could later sell their share outside the family to someone who could force a The Journal of Latrobe; Being the Notes and Sketches of an Architect, Naturalist and Traveler in the United States from 1796 to 1820 (Burt Franklin ,) partition sale Problems with Heirs Property caused a further loss of farming land in the African American communityNo financial settlement makes up for humiliation distress and loss and many of these farmers had already lost their land by the time they received money It isast time we treated everyone with decency and justice EXCELLENT book about the recent history of state sanctioned barriers to Menace of Club Mephistopheles property ownership in the Southern United States A must read for those studying the American Southraceagricultural systems. Ts thisassive nullification consisted of a blizzard of bureaucratic obfuscation blatant acts of discrimination and cronyism violence and intimidation Dispossession recovers a lost chapter of the black experience in the American South Practical Programming presenting a counternarrative to the conventional story of therogress achieved by the civil rights moveme.